Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

The Effects of Trance-Induced Sensations by Illicit Drug Use on Sense of Time

Publication Date



Sciences and Mathematics, College of


Psychological Science, Department of

BURS Faculty Advisor

Dr. Adam Smiley

Presentation Type

Oral Presentation


The culture of the techno party scene is perpetuated by drug use. Whether it is used as a means to enhance the experience, or an individual feels it is necessary to have fun, illicit drugs such as cocaine and ketamine proliferate the scene. These drugs create an effect for users that is referred to as “trance,” a euphoric state of being that heightens emotional and spiritual experiences during activities like dancing, singing, or meditation. This state can be reached by using specific psychoactive drugs, but it is becoming more common for partygoers to use more than one drug to achieve this state of mind. Previous research suggests that there has been an increase in the use of LSD, ketamine, and a trend of using more than one drug have increased by at least 15% each (Palamar & Keyes, 2020). By looking at the specific effects certain drugs and their interactions have on their users, the current study uses public data from a live club setting (Schäfer & Kreuzburg, 2023) to better understand how a user’s sense of time in a club is affected by the sensations brought on by the state of “trance.” We expect to find that an individual who has taken drugs will spend an increased amount of time in a club as their sense of time, rationality, and self awareness decrease. Data is currently being analyzed and results will be updated before BURS.


We will email Beth Bowman before April 14 to update the abstract with results.

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